Ceil Chapman was born Cecilia Mitchell in 1912 on Staten Island. Chapman began designing in the 1930s after meeting Gloria and Thelma Vanderbilt while working as a salesgirl. The three women formed the manufacturing company called Her Ladyship Gowns. The firm folded in 1940 but Chapman landed on her feet, finding work with Sam Chapman, a dress salesmen. The two, who would eventually marry, opened up their own design firm. It was during WWII, when the U.S.A. was cut off from the Parisian fashion industry, that Chapman began earning a name for herself as a party-dress designer. Chapman's designs were the most sought after dresses for proms and debutante balls. The garments usually sold between $50 and $300 (roughly between $500 and $3000 in 2020). The Chapmans divorced in 1951 but the firm remained intact until being dissolved in 1965. After this, Ceil Chapman worked as a designer for Sam Winston. She retired in the mid 1960s but tried to revive her career in 1969, to little success. Ceil Chapman passed away on July 13, 1979 at the age of 67.
Helen Charelle was an American fashion designer known for half-sizes.
Cyd Charisse was an American dancer and actress.
Charles of the Ritz is an American cosmetic and perfumery brand.
The story of the brand started when the hairdresser Charles Jundt bought the Manhattan beauty salon of the New York City Ritz Hotel in 1916. In 1926, he began producing make-up and a year later he added fragrances to their product list. The company joined with Lanvin to form Lanvin- Charles of the Ritz in 1964. In 1971, the company was sold to Squibb and Squib sell of Lanvin in 1978 and renamed the brand Charles of the Ritz Group, Ltd. In 1987, Yves Saint Laurent bought Charles of the Ritz fragrance license and the remaining brand was sold to Revlon. In 2002 the brand was discontinued and now many of their fragrances are sold by the name of Revlon.
The Château de Versailles (Palace of Versailles) began life as a small hunting lodge, built for Louis XIII, king of France, between 1623 and 1624. Less than a decade later, the king decided to construct a larger building, which would become the foundation of the Palace of Versailles. Versailles became a royal residences of leisure. Louis XIV would further the construction of the palace and grounds. Louis XIV spent much of his life at Versaille, having first visited in 1641. In 1661, the king commenced many building projects, and in 1682, Versailles became the main residence of the French Court and government. In 1715, Versailles was depopulated, following Louis XIV's death. The palace was neglected until 1722 when Louis XV sanctioned new building, following the original plans. Louis XV spent much of his later life in Versailles. After he passed, Louis XVI and his wife, Marie-Antoinette, made Versailles their home. The royal couple were forced to leave in October of 1789. During the French Revloution, the palace was pillaged, but the building remained largely intact. In 1793, the palace was designated to be used as a Public Repository. In September 1833 Louis Philippe, the Citizen King, used the palace for dignitary meetings. The palace was chosen to host the treaty ceremony ending the first World War. The palace was used only sporadically throughout much of the 20th century. Sacha Guitry's 1953 film "Royal Affairs in Versailles" reignited the public's interest in the palace. In 1973, Eleanor Lambert and Versailles curator Gerald Van der Kemp organized a fashion show of five French (Yves Saint Laurent, Pierre Cardin, Emanuel Ungaro, Christian Dior, and Hubert de Givenchy) and five American fashion designers (Oscar de la Renta, Stephen Burrows, Halston, Bill Blass, and Anne Klein), known as the "Battle of Versailles," to raise money for its restoration. Today, Versailles is a popular destination for tourists around the world.
The House of Chaumet, founded in 1780, is a high-end jeweler based in Paris.
French fashion designer
Jerome "Jerry" Chazen is the founder and chairman of Chazen Capital Partners, a private investment firm. He is also chairman emeritus and one of four founding partners of Liz Claiborne Inc. He was responsible for the innovative sales, marketing, distribution, and licensing programs of Liz Claiborne. He received is MBA from Columbia University in New York, in 1950. In 1991, Cazen founded and funded The Chazen Institute of Global Business.
The Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington, D.C. began in 1912 after the U.S. was gifted 3000 cherry trees as a gift from Japan. The trees were planted on March 27th of that year. The first "festival" was celebrated in 1927 as a reenactment of the planting of the trees by school children. Eight years later, civic groups in the city helped to expand the festival. As of 2020, the festival takes place over four weeks, with more than 50 activities taking place for visitors to participate in.
The Maison Cheruit was one of the premiere couture houses of the early 20th century, founded by Louise Chéruit in 1906. Chéruit was one of the original sponsors of the luxury fashion magazine Gazette du bon ton, and during WWI was one of a handful of couture houses that remained open. In 1914, a scandal regarding her Austrian lover forced Chéruit to flee Paris, leaving her business in the hands of Julie Wormser and Louise Boulanger. The house remained open, under the direction of various designers, until 1935 when Elsa Schiaparelli took over the premises for her own couture business.
French fashion designer
Alva Chinn is an American fashion model. She was one of Oscar de la Renta's favorite models. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Chinn worked as a successful model for well-known designers of the period, including modeling for the American contingent at the 'Battle of Versailles' in 1973. In 1977, Chinn appeared on the cover of musical group Chic's debut album "Chic". Chinn began acting in 1983, which she continues to do to this day.
Chloé is a French fashion house that was founded in 1952 by Gaby Aghion. Chloé coined the term "prêt-à-porter", as the Ready-To-Wear concept was relatively new at the time.
Christian Dior is a world renowned French fashion house, selling both ready-to-wear and couture women's and men's clothing and accessories. The company was founded in December of 1946 by Christian Dior. Dior's first collection was shown on February 12th for Spring / Summer 1947. This legendary collection helped re-establish the French fashion industry after World War II and launched the "New Look," a term coined by Carmel Snow, the editor of "Harper's Bazaar." The "New Look" silhouette consisted of long, full skirts, nipped waists, full busts, and soft shoulders. The rich and famous came from all around the world to order Dior designs. In 1948, Dior established a ready-to-wear boutique on the corner of 5th Avenue and 57th Street in New York. A year after that, Dior became the first couturier to arrange licensed production of his garments. By the mid-1950s, the firm was one of the most successful and popular fashion brands in Paris. Sadly, in 1957, only a decade after the brand rocketed to fame, Christian Dior passed away. Dior's assistant, a young Yves Saint Laurent, took over as head designer. He introduced the ligne Trapèze, a large A-line dress that hid the female form, the antithesis of the silhouette that helped establish Dior. Having been called to serve in the millitary, Saint Laurent had to step down as designer in 1960. Marc Bohan, then working in Dior's London firm designing suits. Bohan designed for Dior until 1989. During this time, Bohan grew Dior into a large operation and opened stores in Euorpe, North America, and Asia. In 1978, Dior was sold to the Willot Group. Soon after, Bernard Arnault purchased Dior from the Willot Group. Italian-born Gianfranco Ferré replaced Bohan in 1989. Under Ferré, who's style was more classic and chic, Dior continued to grow in popularity. Ferré left in 1996 and was replaced by John Galliano. Arnault compared Galliano to Christian Dior, stating that Galliano "has the same extraordinary mixture of romanticism, feminism and modernity that symbolized Monsieur Dior. In all of his creations - his suits, his dresses - one finds similarities to the Dior style." With Galliano at the reigns, Christian Dior became known for their lavish, over-the-top fashion shows. In 1999, the now-signature saddlebag was designed. Galliano remained head designer until 2011 when he was fired after making anti-semetic remaks. Having worked for Galliano under both the Dior label and Galliano's own company, Bill Gaytten was appointed as the head designer. Gaytten's time at Dior was short; In 2012 Raf Simons was named as the new head designer, despite having no background in couture. However, his first collection was praised by the fashion elite. Maria Grazia Chiuri, the former Valentino co-creative director, replaced Simmons in 2016, becoming the first female to head up the label. Chiuri has a more relaxed design aesthetic. Her 2018 ‘We Should All Be Feminists’ T-shirts instantly became an iconic fashion moment.
Dennis Christopher (1955 - ) is an American actor known for "Breaking Away" and "Django Unchained."
David Chu was born in Taiwan and immigrated to the United States at the age of thirteen. He graduated from the Fashion Institute of Technology with a degree in fashion design. In 1983 he founded Nautica.
U.S. Senator Jacob Javits and Newsweek Editor-in-Chief Osborn Elliott founded the Citizens Committee for New York City in the early 1970s. The committee's mission is to revitalize New York City neighborhoods through resident-led initiative and engagement.
"Anne Elisabeth Jane Claiborne (March 31, 1929 – June 26, 2007) was an American fashion designer and businesswoman. Her success was built upon stylish yet affordable apparel for career women featuring colorfully tailored separates that could be mixed and matched. Claiborne is best known for co-founding Liz Claiborne Inc., which in 1986 became the first company founded by a woman to make the Fortune 500 list. Claiborne was the first woman to become chair and CEO of a Fortune 500 company." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liz_Claiborne
Ina Claire was an American stage and film actress.
Lygia Clark was Brazilian artist who worked in mediums including painting, sculpture, and installations.
Parsons-trained Margaret Clark married shoe designer Jerry Miller and in the early 1950's they set up their own company, the Margaret Clark Design Studio. In 1954, the two founded their own wholesaling shoe company, Shoe Biz, selling Clark's design under the label "Margaret Jerrold." Other brand names included Pancaldi (Walter Steiger, principle designer) Edouard Jerrold (Jann Johnson, principle designer) and Shoe Strings (Donald Hubbard, principle designer). Margaret Jerrold shoes were known for their high style and fine workmanship. In 1960, her designs appeared on the cover of Harper's Bazaar. Margaret, a graduate of the University of Oklahoma School of Fine Arts and Parsons School of Design designed shoes that were sold in Lord & Taylor, Saks, Nordstrom's and Nieman-Marcus. In 1960, and in 1961 she received the National Shoe Retailers Award and in 1964 the Nieman-Marcus award. In 1964 she retired due to poor health.
Irish stained-glass artist and book illustrator. Born in Dublin, he was a leading figure in the Irish Arts and Crafts Movement; died of tuberculosis in Chur, Grisons, Switzerland.
Pat Cleveland was one of the most popular models working in Fashion during the later half of the 20th Century. Born in 1950, Cleveland's modeling career began in 1967 after being spotted on a subway platform by Carrie Donovan, an assistant editor at Vogue magazine. Vogue published an article on Cleveland's fashion designs. The African American lifestyle magazine, Ebony, hired Cleveland to model for their annual Fashion Fair national runway tour. After working with Ebony, Cleveland signed with New York's Ford modelling agency. During the last few years of the '60s, Cleveland worked with some of the best photographers, like Richard Avedon and Irving Penn. Cleveland, however, became fed up with the U.S. and its racism. She moved to Paris in 1971, stating that she wouldn't come back to the U.S. until a black woman appeared on the cover of Vogue. While in France, she became friendly with Karl Lagerfeld and lived with fashion illustrator Antonio Lopez and his entourage. While in Paris, Cleveland worked with some of the biggest names in fashion. In 1973, she was one of the models chosen to walk in the legendary 'Battle of Versaille.' After Beverly Johnson appeared on the cover of US Vogue in 1974, Cleveland returned to the U.S. Having proven herself to be a talented runway model, Cleveland was hired by many designers to walk the catwalk in their shows. Cleveland continued to work in fashion until the mid-1980s when she went into semi-retirement to focus on her family. In 1995, Cleveland started her own modelling agency in Piedmont, Italy. Cleveland published a memoir, "Walking with the Muses," in 2016. While returning to the runway for Paris Fashion Week in 2019, Cleveland fell ill. She was diagnosed with colon cancer. Luckily, she pulled through. As of Fall 2020, Cleveland is healthy and continues to work in fashion. Her daughter is model Anna Cleveland.
Hillary Rodham Clinton was born on October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois. After graduating from Wellesley College, she received a degree in Law from Yale University. During the summer breaks, Hillary worked in politics; in 1971, she traveled to Washington D.C. to assist with U.S. Senator Walter Mondale's sub-committee on migrant workers; the following year she worked on the campaign team for Democratic presidential nominee George McGovern on the west coast. A year after graduating with honors in 1973, she was brought on to serve on the presidential impeachment inquiry staff, advising the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives during the Watergate Scandal. During this time Hillary was dating Bill Clinton, whom she met at Yale. The couple married in 1975 and their daughter, Chelsea Victoria, was born five years later. In 1977, Clinton joined the Rose Law Firm in Little Rock. Bill Clinton was elected governor of Arkansas in 1979. From 1979 to 1992, Hillary Clinton acted as First Lady of the State while continuing to work at the Rose Law Firm. In addition to this work, she was an advocate for many children's causes. In 1992, Bill Clinton was elected President of the United States. Hillary proved to be a practical First Lady and wife. After leaving the White House, Clinton became the first wife of a president to seek and win public office, gaining the U.S. Senate seat from New York. In 2007, while still working in the Senate, Clinton announced that she would run for President in the 2008 election. Although not becoming the Democratic nominee, the Democratic party won the presidency. The president elect Barack Obama nominated Clinton as Secretary of State. She accepted, becoming the 67th U.S. Secretary of State by the Senate on January 21, 2009. In 2015, Clinton again announced that she would run for president. In mid-2016, Clinton became presumptive presidential nominee for the Democratic Party, becoming the first woman to be nominated on either the Republican or Democratic political party's ticket. Although winning the popular vote, in November 2016, Clinton lost the Electoral College vote to the Republican nominee, Donald Trump. After her defeat, Clinton withdrew from the public eye. In September of 2017, she published "What Happened," a book disecting and rationalizing her 2016 defeat.
Design firm in New York. Incorporates Feng Shui into designs. Still active.
Female designer from Ireland who now resides in New York. Incorporates Feng Shui into her designs. She dropped her first name, Aubry, when she became a designer. Still active.
American company specializing in leather goods and other luxury accessories. In 2017, after acquiring Stuart Weitzman and Kate Spade, Coach Inc. renamed itself Tapestry Inc.
Julia Coburn worked in a mid-western department store until being hired by Harper's Bazaar in 1927. At Bazaar, Coburn worked as the promotional manager. Three years later, the Hearst Newspaper company hired Coburn to be their Director of Fashion. Later, Coburn became the Fashion Editor of Ladies Home Journal. Coburn became the President of the Fashion Group in the 1930s. In 1937, she and Miss Tobé founded the Tobé-Coburn School. This was seen as one of the important moments that helped solidify New York as a center for fashion. The school prepared students with High School or college education for careers in the fashion field. After being bought and sold to a few different individuals, the school was incorporated into the Wood School in 1993. Julia Coburn retired and moved to Poughkeepsie in the 1970s.
Abe Cohen was the founder of Craftex, an intimate apparel manufacturing firm that produced ladies and children's robe under the Gilligan & O’Malley label. Craftex sold the label to Target in the 1990s. Craftex went out of business in 1996.
Robert Cohen took over the Craftex firm after his father, Abe Cohen, left. Cohen acted as Chief Executive Officer of R.J.C. Development Corporation, a real estate company, since 1987. In 1995, Cohen founded and acted as President and Chief Executive Officer of Recharge Corporation of America, a recycling company. A year later, Cohen retired from Craftex. Cohen also founded the Shamrock Outlet Stores, Inc. in 1993. In addition to this work, from 1987 to 1992, Cohen served on the board of the Intimate Apparel Council of the American Apparel Manufacturers' Association.
Claudette Colbert was a French-born American stage and film actress.
Anne Cole is an American swimwear designer.
Anne first entered the world of fashion in the 1950s at her father’s swimwear company, Cole of California. As she worked her way through the ranks, her unique perspective on sales and marketing shaped Cole of California into an icon. From there, she launched her eponymous collection, creating styles for women of every age that flatter with effortless ease. Perhaps most famously, Anne created the original Tankini, blending the modesty of a one-piece swimsuit with the flexibility of a two-piece.
Today the Anne Cole brand offers a full collection of high-quality fashion swimwear in women’s and plus sizes.
Beatrice Coleman was born to Ida Cohen and William Rosenthal in 1916. Her parents founded Maidenform Inc. in 1922. Beatrice Coleman joined Maidenform Inc., in 1938 after graduating from Barnard. She became the president of Maidenform Inc. in 1968, succeeding her husband, Dr. Joseph A. Colman, after he passed away. In the 1970s, President Jimmy Carter appointed Coleman to the National Commission for Unemployment Compensation. Coleman also acted as a trustee and board member for multiple institutions. Coleman passed away in June, 1990.
Colour by Quant is a publication produced by Mary Quant.
"The Columbia Center for Oral History (CCOH) was founded by historian and journalist Allan Nevins in 1948 and is credited with launching the establishment of oral history archives internationally. At over 10,000 interviews, the Oral History Archives is one of the largest oral history collections in the United States. The Oral History Archives at Columbia is housed at the Rare Book & Manuscript Library in Butler Library and is open to all." https://library.columbia.edu/libraries/ccoh.html
Columbia University was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of King George II of England. Samuel Johnson held the first classes in July, 1754. The school was then located in lower Manhattan. The school closed down during the American Revolution. A year after the war ended, in 1784, the school reopened with a new name; Columbia. The school continued to grow throughout the 19th century. The school moved uptown to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857. Forty years later, the campus was once again moved, this time to its current location in Morningside Heights, on Manhattan's Upper West Side. The campus was designed by McKim, Mead, and White, the renowned turn-of-the-century architectural firm. In the 20th century, Columbia became a renowned institution for higher learning, with many bright minds calling the school home. The school has kept this reputation into the 21st century.
Comme des Garçons is a Japanese fashion label founded and headed by Rei Kawakubo in Tokyo and Place Vendôme in Paris.
In the 1940s, fashion and apparel industry members were faced with a dwindling number of qualified people to help them run and carry on their businesses. The next generation wanted to be doctors and lawyers?not tailors. A group of industry members, led by Mortimer C. Ritter, an educator with an interest in programs for young working people, and Max Meyer, a retired menswear manufacturer, set about organizing a school to ensure the vitality of their businesses. First, they created the Educational Foundation for the Fashion Industries to promote education for the industry. The Foundation then obtained a charter from the New York State Board of Regents to establish a ?fashion institute of technology and design.? The institute opened in 1944 with 100 students, and was located on the top two floors of the High School of Needle Trades.
Soon, supporters wanted to bring greater prestige to the industry by having the institute become a college with the authority to confer degrees. Industrialists and educators decided on two majors: Design (with programs in apparel, millinery, and textiles) and Scientific Management. The curriculum also included Liberal Arts. In 1951, three years after the State University of New York had been established and state law had provided for the creation of community colleges, FIT became the second SUNY community college empowered to grant the Associate in Applied Science (AAS) degree. By then, there were 400 day students and about 1,000 evening students.
FIT received accreditation in 1957, and as the curriculum and student body grew, the college moved into its first real home?a nine-story building on Seventh Avenue in the heart of the garment district?in 1959. The building had been planned for 1,200 students; by 1963, there were 4,000. During this time, the college?s curriculum was growing beyond traditional notions of fashion, to include subjects like photography and advertising and interior design.
The college wanted to further expand its curriculum by offerings bachelor?s and master?s degrees? something that ?was just not done? by a community college, according to the State University?s former chancellor. Representatives of the college and supporters in the industry and government lobbied hard to persuade legislators to allow FIT to do this. In 1975, an amendment to the Education Law of New York State permitted FIT to offer BS and BFA programs; another in 1979 authorized master?s programs.
By this time, six more buildings had been added to the campus, including two dormitories, and the Shirley Goodman Resource Center, which houses the Gladys Marcus Library and The Museum at FIT. The school continued to grow by adding state-of-the art facilities, like the Design/Lighting Research Laboratory and the Annette Green Fragrance Foundation Studio (the first of its kind on a college campus), making international programs available to students, and evolving its academic offerings
Today, the campus encompasses an entire city block, and serves more than 10,000 students. The college offers degrees in diverse subjects, such as Menswear and Cosmetics and Fragrance Marketing, which are unique to the college, and Fashion Merchandising Management, Visual Presentation and Exhibition Design, and Toy Design, the first of their kind in the country (http://www.fitnyc.edu/1807.asp).
Complice (pronounced com-plee-chay) was a label created the fashion company "Genny" in 1975. Both Genny and Complice were founded by Arnoldo Girombelli. From 1975 until 1981, Gianni Versace was the head designer of the label. Claude Montana replaced Versace in 1981. Six years later, Muriel Grateau took over as Complice's designer. Under Grateau, the brand grew stale. Dolce and Gabbana were hired in 1990 to reinvent the brand. Their Fall 1990 collection was well received. In 1992, Madonna appeared on the cover of Vogue wearing a striped sweater designed by Dolce and Gabbana for Complice. Sometime between Genny's purchase by the Prada group in 2001 and the 2011 acquisition by Swinger International Group, Complice had ceased to exist.
American mass media company
Sybil Connolly (1921-1998) was an Irish fashion designer. Connolly dressed a number of famous individuals, most notably Jacqueline Kennedy, who wears a Connolly design in her official portrait. Later in her life, Connolly designed interior goods for Tiffany & Co.
Giorgio Conrad (1827–1889) was an Swiss-born Italian photographer active in the mid-19th century.
Contempora Art Circle was founded by the artist Frank Herrmann in New York (509 Madison Avenue) in 1935. May also be known as the New Art Circle.
"Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in 1934 and eventually headquartered in Houston, Texas. It had ownership interests and brand partnerships with several carriers. Continental started out as one of the smaller carriers in the United States, known for its limited operations under the regulated era. Post 1978, Continental grew into one of the country's largest carriers despite facing financial troubles and other issues, eventually becoming one of the more successful airlines in the United States. The airline merged with UAL Corporation (the parent company of United Airlines) via a stock swap in 2010. Continental's shares were acquired by UAL Corporation; the re-organized holding company was renamed United Continental Holdings. During the integration period, each airline ran a separate operation under the direction of a combined leadership team, based in Chicago. The integration was completed on March 3, 2012. Although the merged airline retained the United name, it uses Continental's operating certificate and livery. On Thursday June 27, 2019 United changed its parent company name from United Continental Holdings to United Airlines Holdings." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_Airlines
Gordon Conway was raised in Dallas and worked in New York, London, and Paris. She became an illustrator for Vanity Fair and an accomplished fashion artist; she went on to a career in design that encompassed publicity campaigns for Broadway musicals, costume and set designs for cabaret in Paris, and the management of the first autonomous costume department at a major British film studio.
Gordon Cooke was the Executive Vice President for Sales Promotion at Bloomingdale's throughout the 1980s, eventually leaving Bloomingdale's to work for Time Warner in 1992. While at Bloomingdale's, Cooke worked under Marvin S. Traub, who was in his final decade as the chief executive at the department store.
One of three founders of the Hampton Coat Co.
Arlene Carol Cooper (December 29, 1939 – October 28, 2019) was a textile analyst. She had a large collection of Middle Eastern Paisleys, which she donated to the Cleveland Museum. Cooper published her research on "Kashmir" and "Paisley" shawls. In addition to her work with textiles, Cooper was a supporter of modern dance, acting as a patron to the American Ballet Theatre, New York City Ballet, and the Ballet Tech.
Gary Cooper (1901-1961) was an American actor working during the "Golden Age" of Hollywood. He began his career making silent films and transitioned to talkies rather seamlessly. Throughout his career, spanning nearly four-decades, Cooper was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning two in 1942 and 1953. He received an Honorary Oscar in 1961.
Cooper-Hewitt Museum is a design museum in New York City and one of 19 museums that fall under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution.